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RabbitMQ is open source message broker software (sometimes called message-oriented middleware) that implements the Advanced Message Queuing Protocol (AMQP). The RabbitMQ server is written in the Erlang programming language and is built on the Open Telecom Platform framework for clustering and failover. Client libraries to interface with the broker are available for all major programming languages.
One of the important things to note about RabbitMQ is that it stores data based on what it calls the "Node Name", which defaults to the hostname. What this means for usage in Docker is that we should specify
--hostname explicitly for each daemon so that we don't get a random hostname and can keep track of our data:
$ docker run -d --hostname my-rabbit --name some-rabbit rabbitmq:3
This will start a RabbitMQ container listening on the default port of 5672. If you give that a minute, then do
docker logs some-rabbit, you'll see in the output a block similar to:
=INFO REPORT==== 6-Jul-2015::20:47:02 === node : rabbit@my-rabbit home dir : /var/lib/rabbitmq config file(s) : /etc/rabbitmq/rabbitmq.config cookie hash : UoNOcDhfxW9uoZ92wh6BjA== log : tty sasl log : tty database dir : /var/lib/rabbitmq/mnesia/rabbit@my-rabbit
database dir there, especially that it has my "Node Name" appended to the end for the file storage. This image makes all of
/var/lib/rabbitmq a volume by default.
For a list of environment variables supported by RabbitMQ itself, see the Environment Variables section of rabbitmq.com/configure
WARNING: As of RabbitMQ 3.9, all of the docker-specific variables listed below are deprecated and no longer used. Please use a configuration file instead; visit rabbitmq.com/configure to learn more about the configuration file. For a starting point, the 3.8 images will print out the config file it generated from supplied environment variables.
# Unavailable in 3.9 and up RABBITMQ_DEFAULT_PASS_FILE RABBITMQ_DEFAULT_USER_FILE RABBITMQ_MANAGEMENT_SSL_CACERTFILE RABBITMQ_MANAGEMENT_SSL_CERTFILE RABBITMQ_MANAGEMENT_SSL_DEPTH RABBITMQ_MANAGEMENT_SSL_FAIL_IF_NO_PEER_CERT RABBITMQ_MANAGEMENT_SSL_KEYFILE RABBITMQ_MANAGEMENT_SSL_VERIFY RABBITMQ_SSL_CACERTFILE RABBITMQ_SSL_CERTFILE RABBITMQ_SSL_DEPTH RABBITMQ_SSL_FAIL_IF_NO_PEER_CERT RABBITMQ_SSL_KEYFILE RABBITMQ_SSL_VERIFY RABBITMQ_VM_MEMORY_HIGH_WATERMARK
If you wish to change the default username and password of
guest, you can do so with the
RABBITMQ_DEFAULT_PASS environmental variables. These variables were available previously in the docker-specific entrypoint shell script but are now available in RabbitMQ directly.
$ docker run -d --hostname my-rabbit --name some-rabbit -e RABBITMQ_DEFAULT_USER=user -e RABBITMQ_DEFAULT_PASS=password rabbitmq:3-management
You can then go to
http://host-ip:8080 in a browser and use
password to gain access to the management console
If you wish to change the default vhost, you can do so with the
RABBITMQ_DEFAULT_VHOST environmental variables:
$ docker run -d --hostname my-rabbit --name some-rabbit -e RABBITMQ_DEFAULT_VHOST=my_vhost rabbitmq:3-management
RabbitMQ contains functionality which explicitly tracks and manages memory usage, and thus needs to be made aware of cgroup-imposed limits (e.g.
docker run --memory=..).
The upstream configuration setting for this is
rabbitmq.conf, and it is described under "Memory Alarms" in the documentation. If you set a relative limit via
vm_memory_high_watermark.relative, then RabbitMQ will calculate its limits based on the host's total memory and not the limit set by the contianer runtime.
See the RabbitMQ "Clustering Guide" for more information about cookies and why they're necessary. For setting a consistent cookie (especially useful for clustering but also for remote/cross-container administration via
rabbitmqctl), provide a cookie file (default location of
For example, you can provide the cookie via a file (such as with Docker Secrets):
docker service create ... --secret source=my-erlang-cookie,target=/var/lib/rabbitmq/.erlang.cookie ... rabbitmq
(Note that it will likely also be necessary to specify
uid=XXX,gid=XXX,mode=0600 in order for Erlang in the container to be able to read the cookie file properly. See Docker's
--secret documentation for more details.)
There is a second set of tags provided with the management plugin installed and enabled by default, which is available on the standard management port of 15672, with the default username and password of
$ docker run -d --hostname my-rabbit --name some-rabbit rabbitmq:3-management
You can access it by visiting
http://container-ip:15672 in a browser or, if you need access outside the host, on port 8080:
$ docker run -d --hostname my-rabbit --name some-rabbit -p 8080:15672 rabbitmq:3-management
You can then go to
http://host-ip:8080 in a browser.
Creating a Dockerfile will have them enabled at runtime. To see the full list of plugins present on the image
FROM rabbitmq:3.8-management RUN rabbitmq-plugins enable --offline rabbitmq_mqtt rabbitmq_federation_management rabbitmq_stomp
You can also mount a file at
/etc/rabbitmq/enabled_plugins with contents as an erlang list of atoms ending with a period.
If configuration is required, it is recommended to supply an appropriate
/etc/rabbitmq/rabbitmq.conf file (see the "Configuration File(s)" section of the RabbitMQ documentation for more details), for example via bind-mount, Docker Configs, or a short
Dockerfile with a
Alternatively, it is possible to use the
RABBITMQ_SERVER_ADDITIONAL_ERL_ARGS environment variable, whose syntax is described in section 7.8 ("Configuring an Application") of the Erlang OTP Design Principles User's Guide (the appropriate value for
-rabbit), this method requires a slightly different reproduction of its equivalent entry in
rabbitmq.conf. For example, configuring
channel_max would look something like
-e RABBITMQ_SERVER_ADDITIONAL_ERL_ARGS="-rabbit channel_max 4007". Where the space between the variable
channel_max and its value
4007 correctly becomes a comma when translated in the environment.
See the "Official Images" FAQ and the discussion on docker-library/rabbitmq#174 (especially the large comment by Michael Klishin from RabbitMQ upstream) for a detailed explanation of why this image does not come with a default
HEALTHCHECK defined, and for suggestions for implementing your own health/liveness/readiness checks.
rabbitmq images come in many flavors, each designed for a specific use case.
This is the defacto image. If you are unsure about what your needs are, you probably want to use this one. It is designed to be used both as a throw away container (mount your source code and start the container to start your app), as well as the base to build other images off of.
This image is based on the popular Alpine Linux project, available in the
alpine official image. Alpine Linux is much smaller than most distribution base images (~5MB), and thus leads to much slimmer images in general.
This variant is useful when final image size being as small as possible is your primary concern. The main caveat to note is that it does use musl libc instead of glibc and friends, so software will often run into issues depending on the depth of their libc requirements/assumptions. See this Hacker News comment thread for more discussion of the issues that might arise and some pro/con comparisons of using Alpine-based images.
To minimize image size, it's uncommon for additional related tools (such as
bash) to be included in Alpine-based images. Using this image as a base, add the things you need in your own Dockerfile (see the
alpine image description for examples of how to install packages if you are unfamiliar).
View license information for the software contained in this image.
As with all Docker images, these likely also contain other software which may be under other licenses (such as Bash, etc from the base distribution, along with any direct or indirect dependencies of the primary software being contained).
Some additional license information which was able to be auto-detected might be found in the
As for any pre-built image usage, it is the image user's responsibility to ensure that any use of this image complies with any relevant licenses for all software contained within.