Bitnami MongoDB Docker Image
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MongoDB® packaged by Bitnami

What is MongoDB®?

MongoDB® is a relational open source NoSQL database. Easy to use, it stores data in JSON-like documents. Automated scalability and high-performance. Ideal for developing cloud native applications.

Overview of MongoDB®

Disclaimer: The respective trademarks mentioned in the offering are owned by the respective companies. We do not provide a commercial license for any of these products. This listing has an open-source license. MongoDB(R) is run and maintained by MongoDB, which is a completely separate project from Bitnami.

TL;DR

$ docker run --name mongodb bitnami/mongodb:latest

Docker Compose

$ curl -sSL https://raw.githubusercontent.com/bitnami/bitnami-docker-mongodb/master/docker-compose.yml > docker-compose.yml
$ docker-compose up -d

Why use Bitnami Images?

  • Bitnami closely tracks upstream source changes and promptly publishes new versions of this image using our automated systems.
  • With Bitnami images the latest bug fixes and features are available as soon as possible.
  • Bitnami containers, virtual machines and cloud images use the same components and configuration approach - making it easy to switch between formats based on your project needs.
  • All our images are based on minideb a minimalist Debian based container image which gives you a small base container image and the familiarity of a leading Linux distribution.
  • All Bitnami images available in Docker Hub are signed with Docker Content Trust (DCT). You can use DOCKER_CONTENT_TRUST=1 to verify the integrity of the images.
  • Bitnami container images are released daily with the latest distribution packages available.

How to deploy MongoDB® in Kubernetes?

Deploying Bitnami applications as Helm Charts is the easiest way to get started with our applications on Kubernetes. Read more about the installation in the Bitnami MongoDB® Chart GitHub repository.

Bitnami containers can be used with Kubeapps for deployment and management of Helm Charts in clusters.

Why use a non-root container?

Non-root container images add an extra layer of security and are generally recommended for production environments. However, because they run as a non-root user, privileged tasks are typically off-limits. Learn more about non-root containers in our docs.

Supported tags and respective Dockerfile links

Learn more about the Bitnami tagging policy and the difference between rolling tags and immutable tags in our documentation page.

Subscribe to project updates by watching the bitnami/mongodb GitHub repo.

Get this image

The recommended way to get the Bitnami MongoDB® Docker Image is to pull the prebuilt image from the Docker Hub Registry.

$ docker pull bitnami/mongodb:latest

To use a specific version, you can pull a versioned tag. You can view the list of available versions in the Docker Hub Registry.

$ docker pull bitnami/mongodb:[TAG]

If you wish, you can also build the image yourself.

$ docker build -t bitnami/mongodb:latest 'https://github.com/bitnami/bitnami-docker-mongodb.git#master:5.0/debian-10'

Persisting your database

If you remove the container all your data will be lost, and the next time you run the image the database will be reinitialized. To avoid this loss of data, you should mount a volume that will persist even after the container is removed.

For persistence you should mount a directory at the /bitnami/mongodb path. If the mounted directory is empty, it will be initialized on the first run.

$ docker run \
    -v /path/to/mongodb-persistence:/bitnami/mongodb \
    bitnami/mongodb:latest

or by modifying the docker-compose.yml file present in this repository:

 ...
 services:
   mongodb:
     ...
     volumes:
-      - 'mongodb_data:/bitnami/mongodb'
+      - /path/to/mongodb-persistence:/bitnami/mongodb
   ...

NOTE: As this is a non-root container, the mounted files and directories must have the proper permissions for the UID 1001.

Connecting to other containers

Using Docker container networking, a MongoDB® server running inside a container can easily be accessed by your application containers.

Containers attached to the same network can communicate with each other using the container name as the hostname.

Using the Command Line

In this example, we will create a MongoDB® client instance that will connect to the server instance that is running on the same docker network as the client.

Step 1: Create a network

$ docker network create app-tier --driver bridge

Step 2: Launch the MongoDB® server instance

Use the --network app-tier argument to the docker run command to attach the MongoDB® container to the app-tier network.

$ docker run -d --name mongodb-server \
    --network app-tier \
    bitnami/mongodb:latest

Step 3: Launch your MongoDB® client instance

Finally we create a new container instance to launch the MongoDB® client and connect to the server created in the previous step:

$ docker run -it --rm \
    --network app-tier \
    bitnami/mongodb:latest mongo --host mongodb-server

Using Docker Compose

When not specified, Docker Compose automatically sets up a new network and attaches all deployed services to that network. However, we will explicitly define a new bridge network named app-tier. In this example we assume that you want to connect to the MongoDB® server from your own custom application image which is identified in the following snippet by the service name myapp.

version: '2'

networks:
  app-tier:
    driver: bridge

services:
  mongodb:
    image: 'bitnami/mongodb:latest'
    networks:
      - app-tier
  myapp:
    image: 'YOUR_APPLICATION_IMAGE'
    networks:
      - app-tier

IMPORTANT:

  1. Please update the YOUR_APPLICATION_IMAGE_ placeholder in the above snippet with your application image
  2. In your application container, use the hostname mongodb to connect to the MongoDB® server

Launch the containers using:

$ docker-compose up -d

Configuration

Initializing a new instance

When the container is executed for the first time, it will execute the files with extensions .sh, and .js located at /docker-entrypoint-initdb.d.

In order to have your custom files inside the docker image you can mount them as a volume.

Passing extra command-line flags to mongod startup

Passing extra command-line flags to the mongod service command is possible through the following env var:

  • MONGODB_EXTRA_FLAGS: Flags to be appended to the mongod startup command. No defaults
  • MONGODB_CLIENT_EXTRA_FLAGS: Flags to be appended to the mongo command which is used to connect to the (local or remote) mongod daemon. No defaults
$ docker run --name mongodb -e ALLOW_EMPTY_PASSWORD=yes -e MONGODB_EXTRA_FLAGS='--wiredTigerCacheSizeGB=2' bitnami/mongodb:latest

or by modifying the docker-compose.yml file present in this repository:

services:
  mongodb:
  ...
    environment:
      - ALLOW_EMPTY_PASSWORD=yes
      - MONGODB_EXTRA_FLAGS=--wiredTigerCacheSizeGB=2
  ...

Configuring system log verbosity level

Configuring the system log verbosity level is possible through the following env vars:

  • MONGODB_DISABLE_SYSTEM_LOG: Whether to enable/disable system log on MongoDB®. Default: false. Possible values: [true, false].
  • MONGODB_SYSTEM_LOG_VERBOSITY: MongoDB® system log verbosity level. Default: 0. Possible values: [0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5]. For more information about the verbosity levels please refer to the MongoDB® documentation
$ docker run --name mongodb -e ALLOW_EMPTY_PASSWORD=yes -e MONGODB_SYSTEM_LOG_VERBOSITY='3' bitnami/mongodb:latest

or by modifying the docker-compose.yml file present in this repository:

services:
  mongodb:
  ...
    environment:
      - ALLOW_EMPTY_PASSWORD=yes
      - MONGODB_SYSTEM_LOG_VERBOSITY=3
  ...

Using numactl

In order to enable launching commands using numactl, set the MONGODB_ENABLE_NUMACTL variable to true. For more information on this, check the official [MongoDB documentation][(https://docs.mongodb.com/manual/administration/production-notes/#configuring-numa-on-linux)

Enabling/disabling IPv6

Enabling/disabling IPv6 is possible through the following env var:

  • MONGODB_ENABLE_IPV6: Whether to enable/disable IPv6 on MongoDB®. Default: false. Possible values: [true, false]

To enable IPv6 support, you can execute:

$ docker run --name mongodb -e ALLOW_EMPTY_PASSWORD=yes -e MONGODB_ENABLE_IPV6=yes bitnami/mongodb:latest

or by modifying the docker-compose.yml file present in this repository:

services:
  mongodb:
  ...
    environment:
      - ALLOW_EMPTY_PASSWORD=yes
      - MONGODB_ENABLE_IPV6=yes
  ...

Enabling/disabling directoryPerDB

Enabling/disabling directoryPerDB is possible through the following env var:

  • MONGODB_ENABLE_DIRECTORY_PER_DB: Whether to enable/disable directoryPerDB on MongoDB®. Default: true. Possible values: [true, false]
$ docker run --name mongodb -e ALLOW_EMPTY_PASSWORD=yes -e MONGODB_ENABLE_DIRECTORY_PER_DB=yes bitnami/mongodb:latest

or by modifying the docker-compose.yml file present in this repository:

services:
  mongodb:
  ...
    environment:
      - ALLOW_EMPTY_PASSWORD=yes
      - MONGODB_ENABLE_DIRECTORY_PER_DB=yes
  ...

Enabling/disabling journaling

Enabling/disabling journal is possible through the following env var:

  • MONGODB_ENABLE_JOURNAL: Whether to enable/disable journaling on MongoDB®. Default: true. Possible values: [true, false]
$ docker run --name mongodb -e ALLOW_EMPTY_PASSWORD=yes -e MONGODB_ENABLE_JOURNAL=true bitnami/mongodb:latest

or by modifying the docker-compose.yml file present in this repository:

services:
  mongodb:
  ...
    environment:
      - ALLOW_EMPTY_PASSWORD=yes
      - MONGODB_ENABLE_JOURNAL=true
  ...

Setting the root user and password on first run

Passing the MONGODB_ROOT_PASSWORD environment variable when running the image for the first time will set the password of MONGODB_ROOT_USER to the value of MONGODB_ROOT_PASSWORD and enable authentication on the MongoDB® server. If unset, MONGODB_ROOT_USER defaults to root.

$ docker run --name mongodb \
  -e MONGODB_ROOT_PASSWORD=password123 bitnami/mongodb:latest

or by modifying the docker-compose.yml file present in this repository:

services:
  mongodb:
  ...
    environment:
      - MONGODB_ROOT_PASSWORD=password123
  ...

The MONGODB_ROOT_USER user is configured to have full administrative access to the MongoDB® server. When MONGODB_ROOT_PASSWORD is not specified the server allows unauthenticated and unrestricted access.

Creating a user and database on first run

You can create a user with restricted access to a database while starting the container for the first time. To do this, provide the MONGODB_USERNAME, MONGODB_PASSWORD and MONGODB_DATABASE environment variables.

$ docker run --name mongodb \
  -e MONGODB_USERNAME=my_user -e MONGODB_PASSWORD=password123 \
  -e MONGODB_DATABASE=my_database bitnami/mongodb:latest

or by modifying the docker-compose.yml file present in this repository:

services:
  mongodb:
  ...
    environment:
      - MONGODB_USERNAME=my_user
      - MONGODB_PASSWORD=password123
      - MONGODB_DATABASE=my_database
  ...

Note! Creation of a user enables authentication on the MongoDB® server and as a result unauthenticated access by any user is not permitted.

Setting up replication

A replication cluster can easily be setup with the Bitnami MongoDB® Docker Image using the following environment variables:

  • MONGODB_REPLICA_SET_MODE: The replication mode. Possible values primary/secondary/arbiter. No defaults.
  • MONGODB_REPLICA_SET_NAME: MongoDB® replica set name. Default: replicaset
  • MONGODB_PORT_NUMBER: The port each MongoDB® will use. Default: 27017
  • MONGODB_INITIAL_PRIMARY_HOST: MongoDB® initial primary host, once the replicaset is created any node can be eventually promoted to be the primary. No defaults.
  • MONGODB_INITIAL_PRIMARY_PORT_NUMBER: MongoDB® initial primary node port, as seen by other nodes. Default: 27017
  • MONGODB_ADVERTISED_HOSTNAME: MongoDB® advertised hostname. No defaults. It is recommended to pass this environment variable if you experience issues with ephemeral IPs. Setting this env var makes the nodes of the replica set to be configured with a hostname instead of the machine IP.
  • MONGODB_ADVERTISED_PORT_NUMBER: MongoDB® advertised port number. No defaults. It is recommended to pass this environment variable if you have a proxy port forwarding requests to container.
  • MONGODB_REPLICA_SET_KEY: MongoDB® replica set key. Length should be greater than 5 characters and should not contain any special characters. Required for all nodes. No default.
  • MONGODB_ROOT_USER: MongoDB® root user name. Default: root.
  • MONGODB_ROOT_PASSWORD: MongoDB® root password. No defaults. Only for primary node.
  • MONGODB_INITIAL_PRIMARY_ROOT_PASSWORD: MongoDB® initial primary root password. No defaults. Only for secondaries and arbiter nodes.

In a replication cluster you can have one primary node, zero or more secondary nodes and zero or one arbiter node.

Note: The total number of nodes on a replica set scenario cannot be higher than 8 (1 primary, 6 secondaries and 1 arbiter)

Step 1: Create the replication primary

The first step is to start the MongoDB® primary.

$ docker run --name mongodb-primary \
  -e MONGODB_REPLICA_SET_MODE=primary \
  -e MONGODB_ADVERTISED_HOSTNAME=mongodb-primary \
  -e MONGODB_ROOT_PASSWORD=password123 \
  -e MONGODB_REPLICA_SET_KEY=replicasetkey123 \
  bitnami/mongodb:latest

In the above command the container is configured as the primary using the MONGODB_REPLICA_SET_MODE parameter.

Step 2: Create the replication secondary node

Next we start a MongoDB® secondary container.

$ docker run --name mongodb-secondary \
  --link mongodb-primary:primary \
  -e MONGODB_REPLICA_SET_MODE=secondary \
  -e MONGODB_ADVERTISED_HOSTNAME=mongodb-secondary \
  -e MONGODB_INITIAL_PRIMARY_HOST=mongodb-primary \
  -e MONGODB_INITIAL_PRIMARY_PORT_NUMBER=27017 \
  -e MONGODB_INITIAL_PRIMARY_ROOT_PASSWORD=password123 \
  -e MONGODB_REPLICA_SET_KEY=replicasetkey123 \
  bitnami/mongodb:latest

In the above command the container is configured as a secondary using the MONGODB_REPLICA_SET_MODE parameter. The MONGODB_INITIAL_PRIMARY_HOST and MONGODB_INITIAL_PRIMARY_PORT_NUMBER parameters are used connect and with the MongoDB® primary.

Step 3: Create a replication arbiter node

Finally we start a MongoDB® arbiter container.

$ docker run --name mongodb-arbiter \
  --link mongodb-primary:primary \
  -e MONGODB_REPLICA_SET_MODE=arbiter \
  -e MONGODB_ADVERTISED_HOSTNAME=mongodb-arbiter \
  -e MONGODB_INITIAL_PRIMARY_HOST=mongodb-primary \
  -e MONGODB_INITIAL_PRIMARY_PORT_NUMBER=27017 \
  -e MONGODB_INITIAL_PRIMARY_ROOT_PASSWORD=password123 \
  -e MONGODB_REPLICA_SET_KEY=replicasetkey123 \
  bitnami/mongodb:latest

In the above command the container is configured as a arbiter using the MONGODB_REPLICA_SET_MODE parameter. The MONGODB_INITIAL_PRIMARY_HOST and MONGODB_INITIAL_PRIMARY_PORT_NUMBER parameters are used connect and with the MongoDB® primary.

You now have a three node MongoDB® replication cluster up and running which can be scaled by adding/removing secondaries.

Optional: Create a replication hidden node

If we want a replication hidden node, we start a MongoDB® hidden container.

$ docker run --name mongodb-hidden \
  --link mongodb-primary:primary \
  -e MONGODB_REPLICA_SET_MODE=hidden \
  -e MONGODB_ADVERTISED_HOSTNAME=mongodb-hidden \
  -e MONGODB_INITIAL_PRIMARY_HOST=mongodb-primary \
  -e MONGODB_INITIAL_PRIMARY_PORT_NUMBER=27017 \
  -e MONGODB_INITIAL_PRIMARY_ROOT_PASSWORD=password123 \
  -e MONGODB_REPLICA_SET_KEY=replicasetkey123 \
  bitnami/mongodb:latest

In the above command the container is configured as a hidden using the MONGODB_REPLICA_SET_MODE parameter. The MONGODB_INITIAL_PRIMARY_HOST and MONGODB_INITIAL_PRIMARY_PORT_NUMBER parameters are used connect and with the MongoDB® primary.

With Docker Compose the replicaset can be setup using:

version: '2'

services:
  mongodb-primary:
    image: 'bitnami/mongodb:latest'
    environment:
      - MONGODB_ADVERTISED_HOSTNAME=mongodb-primary
      - MONGODB_REPLICA_SET_MODE=primary
      - MONGODB_ROOT_PASSWORD=password123
      - MONGODB_REPLICA_SET_KEY=replicasetkey123

    volumes:
      - 'mongodb_master_data:/bitnami'

  mongodb-secondary:
    image: 'bitnami/mongodb:latest'
    depends_on:
      - mongodb-primary
    environment:
      - MONGODB_ADVERTISED_HOSTNAME=mongodb-secondary
      - MONGODB_REPLICA_SET_MODE=secondary
      - MONGODB_INITIAL_PRIMARY_HOST=mongodb-primary
      - MONGODB_INITIAL_PRIMARY_PORT_NUMBER=27017
      - MONGODB_INITIAL_PRIMARY_ROOT_PASSWORD=password123
      - MONGODB_REPLICA_SET_KEY=replicasetkey123

  mongodb-arbiter:
    image: 'bitnami/mongodb:latest'
    depends_on:
      - mongodb-primary
    environment:
      - MONGODB_ADVERTISED_HOSTNAME=mongodb-arbiter
      - MONGODB_REPLICA_SET_MODE=arbiter
      - MONGODB_INITIAL_PRIMARY_HOST=mongodb-primary
      - MONGODB_INITIAL_PRIMARY_PORT_NUMBER=27017
      - MONGODB_INITIAL_PRIMARY_ROOT_PASSWORD=password123
      - MONGODB_REPLICA_SET_KEY=replicasetkey123

volumes:
  mongodb_master_data:
    driver: local

and run docker-compose using:

$ docker-compose up --detach

In the case you want to scale the number of secondary nodes using the docker-compose parameter --scale, the MONGODB_ADVERTISED_HOSTNAME must not be set in mongodb-secondary and mongodb-arbiter defintions.

version: '2'

services:
  mongodb-primary:
    image: 'bitnami/mongodb:latest'
    environment:
      - MONGODB_ADVERTISED_HOSTNAME=mongodb-primary
      - MONGODB_REPLICA_SET_MODE=primary
      - MONGODB_ROOT_PASSWORD=password123
      - MONGODB_REPLICA_SET_KEY=replicasetkey123

    volumes:
      - 'mongodb_master_data:/bitnami'

  mongodb-secondary:
    image: 'bitnami/mongodb:latest'
    depends_on:
      - mongodb-primary
    environment:
      - MONGODB_REPLICA_SET_MODE=secondary
      - MONGODB_INITIAL_PRIMARY_HOST=mongodb-primary
      - MONGODB_INITIAL_PRIMARY_PORT_NUMBER=27017
      - MONGODB_INITIAL_PRIMARY_ROOT_PASSWORD=password123
      - MONGODB_REPLICA_SET_KEY=replicasetkey123

  mongodb-arbiter:
    image: 'bitnami/mongodb:latest'
    depends_on:
      - mongodb-primary
    environment:
      - MONGODB_REPLICA_SET_MODE=arbiter
      - MONGODB_INITIAL_PRIMARY_HOST=mongodb-primary
      - MONGODB_INITIAL_PRIMARY_PORT_NUMBER=27017
      - MONGODB_INITIAL_PRIMARY_ROOT_PASSWORD=password123
      - MONGODB_REPLICA_SET_KEY=replicasetkey123

volumes:
  mongodb_master_data:
    driver: local

And the run docker-compose using:

$ docker-compose up --detach --scale mongodb-primary=1 --scale mongodb-secondary=3 --scale mongodb-arbiter=1

The above command scales up the number of secondary nodes to 3. You can scale down in the same way.

Note: You should not scale up/down the number of primary nodes. Always have only one primary node running. Note: In this case, the client has to be in the same docker network to be able to reach all the nodes.

How is a replica set configured?

There are four different roles in a replica set configuration (primary, secondary, hidden or arbiter). Each one of these roles are configured in a different way:

Primary node configuration:

The replica set is started with the rs.initiate() command and some configuration options to force the primary to be the primary. Basically, the priority is increased from the default (1) to 5. To verify the primary is actually the primary we validate it with the db.isMaster().ismaster command.

The primary node has a volume attached so the data is preserved between deployments as long as the volume exists.

In addition, the primary node initialization script will check for the existence of a .initialized file in the /bitnami/mongodb folder to discern whether it should create a new replica set or on the contrary a replica set has already been initialized.

If the primary got killed and the volume is deleted, in order to start it again in the same replica set it is important to launch the container with the original IP so other members of the replica set already knows about it.

Secondary node configuration:

Once the primary node is up and running we can start adding secondary nodes (and arbiter). For that, the secondary node connects to the primary node and add itself as a secondary node with the command rs.add(SECONDARY_NODE_HOST).

After adding the secondary nodes we verified they have been successfully added by executing rs.status().members to see if they appear in the list.

Arbiter node configuration:

The arbiters follows the same procedure than secondary nodes with the exception that the command to add it to the replica set is rs.addArb(ARBITER_NODE_HOST). An arbiter should be added when the sum of primary nodes plus secondaries nodes is even.

Hidden node configuration:

Finally, the hidden node follows the same procedure than secondary nodes with the exception that the command to add it to the replica set is rs.add(host: HIDDEN_NODE_HOST, hidden: true, priority: 0}).

Enabling SSL/TLS

This container supports enabling SSL/TLS between nodes in the cluster, as well as between mongo clients and nodes, by setting the MONGODB_EXTRA_FLAGS and MONGODB_CLIENT_EXTRA_FLAGS environment variables, together with the correct MONGODB_ADVERTISED_HOSTNAME. Before starting the cluster you need to generate PEM certificates as required by Mongo - one way is to create self-signed certificates using openssl (see http://www.openssl.org).

The certificates generated as described are not for production use

Another option would be to use letsencrypt certificates; the required configuration steps for that scenario are left as an exercise for the user a

This file is truncated, you can find the whole file in https://github.com/bitnami/bitnami-docker-mongodb/blob/master/README.md